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Citing Sources Guide

Iona University Libraries Research Guide on Citing Source


Print copies are available at the Ryan Help Desk, the Ryan Research Desk, the Arrigoni Help Desk, and on the reference shelves.

Online access to the MLA Handbook Plus is available through the link below:

MLA Handbook Plus - Access online


  • An all-in-one reference guide published in 2021
  • MLA bases its references on the concept of core elements and containers
  • MLA style uses parenthetical citations/ in-text citations to reference alphabetical Works Cited page
  • MLA is traditionally used by the humanities and Arts: English, Art, and Philosophy
  • MLA uses a Works Cited page with Works Cited bolded and centered on the top of the page

MLA works off the concept of containers.

  • When the source forms part of a larger whole, the larger whole is the container that holds the source
    • For example, a newspaper contains an article, but if the newspaper is on a database, the article has two containers; a newspaper and the database
  • The elements of any entry in the Works Cited list are Author, Title, Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication Date, and Location
  • The elements: Author and Title are followed by a period, and a comma follows all other elements
  • If an element cannot be found or does not apply to the cited source, omit that element from the entry
  • End the entry with a period