Citing Sources Guide
Works Cited Page Examples
- Work Cited Guidelines
- Author Guidelines
- Books & E-books
- Government Sources/Reports
- Religious Works
- Social Media
- Classroom Material
MLA Style - Works Cited Quick Guide
The Works Cited list provides all bibliographic information on all sources cited in your work.
- Works Cited lists are located at the end of the paper
- Works Cited lists are double-spaced with no space between entries
- Use hanging indent to indent the second and subsequent entry lines .5 inches from the left margin
- Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the first element, usually the author. If there is no author, use the title
- Alphabetize letter by letter of the author's name before the comma. Letters after the comma are used only when authors have the same last name
- For multiple works by the same author, alphabetize by title. Also, replace the author's name with three hyphens on the second and subsequent entries
- Alphabetize titles letter by letter, ignoring initial articles (A, An, The, and foreign equivalents)
- The location of an online work should include a URL or DOI
- End all citations with a period
- "Article Title" is in quotation marks
- Journal Title is in italics
- If there is no author, begin with the "Article Title."
- Two authors, invert only the first author's name
- Rettberg, Jill, and Radhika Gajjala
- Three or more authors use only the first author's name and et al.
- Wright, Chrysalis, et. al.
- For single pages, use 'p.' followed by the number
- For multiple pages, use 'pp.' followed by the numbers
- If an article is not printed on consecutive pages, cite only the first-page number in the range, followed by a plus sign: pp. A1+
URL or DOI
- Detailed instructions are found in the MLA Style Guide
- When available, it is written as Day Month Year
- Only the first author's name is inverted.
Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.
Rettberg, Jill, and Radhika Gajjala.
Three or more authors
- Use "et. Al."
- Only the first author is listed
Last Name, First Name, et al.
Wright, Chrysalis, et al.
- If there is no author, begin with the "Article Title."
Journal Article in a Database
Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, date, page number. Name of the database, doi.
Lee, Derek. "Dark Romantic: F. Scott Fitzgerald and the Specters of Gothic Modernism." Journal of Modern Literature, vol. 41, no. 4, 2018, pp. 125-42. Ebsco, https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113572.
Journal Article in a Database with a Season
Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, season date, page number.
Goldman, Anne. "Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante." The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, spring 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41403188.
Journal Article in Print
Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, date, page number.
Meisenhelder, Susan. "Conflict and Resistance in Zora Neale Hurston's Mules and Men." Journal of American Folklore, vol. 109, no.433, 1996, pp. 267.
Newspaper Article from a Database
Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Day Month Year of publication, URL.
Davis, Anna, and Sophia Sleigh. "London Teens in Record A-Level Surge." Evening Standard, 10 Aug. 2021, www.proquest.com/newspapers/london-teens-record-level-surge/docview/2559699413/se-2?accountid=35757.
Newspaper Article by a Group (Opinion or Editorial Board) from a Database
Name of Group. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Day Month Year of publication, URL.
Editorial Board. "The Plight of 'Boarder Babies'." The Christian Science Monitor, 06 Jul. 1992, http://rocky.iona.edu:2048/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/newspapers/plight-boarder-babies/docview/291210942/se-2?accountid=35757.
Newspaper Article in Print
Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Day, Month, Year of publication, p. page#.
Mueller, Benjamin. "Despite Another Covid Surge, Deaths Stay Near Lows." The New York Times, 21 June 2022, p.A1.
Magazine Article without an Author from a Database
"Title of Article." Title of Magazine, volume number, issue number, day, month and year of publication, page number. Name of the database, DOI, or permalink.
"Gustav Mahler." Billboard, vol. 128, no. 31, 10 Dec. 2016, p. 32. Gale General OneFile, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A481243580/ITOF?u=nysl_me_iona&sid=bookmark-ITOF&xid=89fd9eaa.
Magazine Article in Print
Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, volume number, issue number, day, month and year of publication, page number.
Coppins, McCay. "The Men Who Are Killing America's Newspapers." The Atlantic, Nov. 2021, pp. 32-40.
E-book from a Database
Last name, First name. Title of the Book. Publisher, Year of Publication. Name of E Provider, URL.
Milne, A A. Winnie-the-Pooh. Illustrated by Ernest H Shepard, McClelland & Stewart, Ltd, 1926, Project Guttenberg, www.gutenberg.org/files/67098/67098-h/67098-h.htm.
E-book from an App
Last Name, First Name. Title of the Book. App Source ed., Publisher, Date.
Swartz, Omar. The View from on the Road: The Rhetorical Vision of Jack Kerouac. Kindle ed., Southern Illinois University Press, 1999.
Print Book with a Single Author
Last Name, First Name. Title of the Book. Publisher, Date.
Mantel, Hilary. Wolf Hall: A Novel. 2nd ed., Henry Holt, 2009.
Print Book with Two Authors
Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name. Title of the Book. Publisher, Date.
King, Steven, and Peter Straub. The Talisman. Viking, 1984.
Print Book with Three or more Authors
*Note only the first author is listed, and then all names are combined into et al.,
Last Name, First Name, et al. Title of the Book. Publisher, Date.
Griliches, Zvi, et al., Handbook of Econometrics. North-Holland Pub. Co, 1983.
Print Book with an Author and an Editor/Translator/Illustrator
Last Name, First Name. Title of the Book. Edited/Translated/Illustrated by First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date.
Shakespeare, William. A Midsummers Night's Dream. Edited by Linda Buckle, Cambridge University Press, 2019.
Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary. Translated by Eleanor Marx-Aveling, Independently Published, 2021.
Baum, Frank L. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Illustrated by W.W. Denslow, SeaWolf Press, 2019.
Book with an Unknown Author and an Editor/Translator/Illustrator
Title of the Book. Translated by First Name Last Name, Edited/Translated/Illustrated by First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date.
The Arabian Nights: Tales of 1,001 Nights. Translated by Malcolm C. Lyons, Edited by Robert Irwin, Penguin Classics. 2010.
Chapter in a Print Book
Last Name, First Name. "Title of Chapter." Title of the Book. Publisher, Date.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The Monk's Tale." The Canterbury Tales. Penguin Books, 2007.
Chapter in an Print Anthology
Last name, First name. "Title of Chapter." Title of the Book: Plus a Subtitle, Edited by First name Last name, Publisher, Year of Publication. Inclusive Page Numbers.
Shikibu, Murasaki. "The Tale of Genji." The Norton Anthology of World Literature, Edited by Martin Puchner et al., W.W. Norton & Company, 2019, pp. 1237-1418.
General Information on Citing Shakespeare
Italicize the titles of the plays – Macbeth (for the play)
Use standard font for the name of a character Macbeth – (for the character)
You may abbreviate the title of the play in the parenthetical citation (check with your instructor first)
- Macbeth – Mac.
- Hamlet – Ham.
- Do not use page numbers in parenthetical citation – always include (act.scene.lines)
- Usually use Arabic numbers (1.5.4-5) or (2.1.110-13)
- Some instructors prefer Roman numerals (II.iv.4-6)
- Always mention the author’s name in the text or the parenthetical citation.
- If the author’s name is mentioned in the text, only put the page number in parentheses; otherwise (author’s last name #).
- If there are no different sources between quotes – can use (#)
(Name of Play, Act. Scene, Line) or (Author, Act, Scene, Line)
- "Haste me to know't, that I, with wings as swift" (Hamlet 1.5.35).
- "This is a sorry sight" (Shakespeare 2.2.26).
If the quote is more than one line, use the forward-slash between each line/verse.
"Haste me to know't, that I, with wings as swift / As meditation … / May sweep to my revenge" (Hamlet 1.5.35-37).
The forward-slash is separated from the text by spaces and indicates a new verse.
The ellipsis ... indicates that part of the text was excluded.
Play in a Database
Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. Yale University Press, 2005. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1nq91p.
Play from a Website
Shakespeare, William. As You Like It, The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. shakespeare.mit.edu/asyoulikeit/index.html.
Play in an E-book
Shakespeare, William. The Winter's Tale. Kindle ed., Simon & Schuster, 2016.
Play in a Print Book
Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. Bedford/St. Martins, 1999.
Play in a Print Anthology
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Macbeth. The Complete Works, edited by Stanley Well, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 2501-2565.
Citing a song is dependent on how you access the song.
Artist or Band name. "Title of Song." Album Name, Label Producer, Date. Format.
Chapin, Harry. "Cat's in the Cradle." Verities & Balderdash, Electra, 1973. Vinyl EP.
Chapin, Harry. "Cat's in the Cradle." Verities & Balderdash, Electra, 1973. Spotify, open.spotify.com/track/2obblQ6tcePeOEVJV6nEGD.
"Word, Part of Speech. (Number of the definition used)." Title of Book. Date, URL.
"Victorious, Adj. (2)." Merriam-Webster, 2021, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/victorious.
"Word, Part of Speech. (Number of the definition used)." Title of Book. Edition, Publisher, Date, page number.
"Amity, N. (1)." Shorter Oxford English, 2020, 5th ed., Shorter Oxford, 2002, p. 69.
Page on a Website
Last Name, First Name. "Page Title." Name of Website, day month year, URL/ DOI.
Carillo, Ellen, et al. "MLA Style Center, the Only Authorized Web Site on MLA Style, Provides Free Resources on Research, Writing, and Documentation." MLA Style Center, 2021, style.mla.org/?_ga=2.84140569.1427309408.1637273253153117140.1635779276.
Website Published by an Organization
Title of Website. Name of Organization, day month year, URL.
Works-Cited-List Entries. MLA Style Center, 2021, style.mla.org/works-cited/citations-by-format/.
Page of a Government Website
Name of Government Organization. "Page Name." Title of Source, Date of Source. URL
The United States Department of Justice. "Readout of Meeting between U.S. Deputy Attorney General Lisa O. Monaco and United Kingdom Home Secretary Priti Patel." The United States Department of Justice, 19 Nov. 2021, www.justice.gov/opa/pr/readoutmeeting-between-us-deputy-attorney-general-lisa-o-monaco-and-united-kingdom-home.
Government Source in Print
Name of Government Organization. Title of Source. Date of Source. Publisher, Date of Publication.
United States, Congress, Committee on the Judiciary. Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure. 2010. Government Printing Office, 2020.
Report Published Online
Name of Author or Agency. Title of Source. Date of Source. URL.
Rules for citing the Bible
Books of the Bible are abbreviated; see the MLA Handbook for standard abbreviations.
Example: (Phil. 3.8)
A period, not a colon, separates chapter and verse.
When you first refer to a particular version, include the name, a comma, and the passage.
Examples: (New Revised Standard Version, Phil. 3.8)
After this, only include the scripture reference unless you switch versions.
Online version of the Bible
Title. Version, date. URL.
The Bible. King James Bible Online, 2022. www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/.
Print Religious Texts
Title. Version, Editor, Publisher, year.
The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford University Press, 2010.
The Qu'ran. Translated by M.A.S. Abdel Haleem, Oxford UP, 2015.
The New Jerusalem Bible. Edited by Henry Wansbrough, Doubleday, 1985.
Author Name. "Title of post." Social Media Forum, Day Month year, URL
Example of Post:
Modern Language Association. "If you're just beginning your PhD journey or are still in the early years of your program, these five tips can help you make the most of your experience." LinkedIn, 2021, www.linkedin.com/posts/modern-language-association_lessons-on-how-to-make-the-most-of-ones-activity-6808411708323901440-Xl8Z/.
Author Name. Comment on "Title of post," by Author of Post First Name Last Name. Social Media Forum, Day Month year, URL
Example of Comment:
Varro-reatinus. Comment on U/reggiew07's review of King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa by Adam Hochschild. Reddit, 31 Oct. 2020, www.reddit.com/r/books/comments/jlbrs4/king_leopolds_ghost_a_story_of_greed_terror_and/.
The description of the image can vary (Photo of or Cover of) and is only italicized if the name of a book,
Author Name. Description. Social Media Forum, Day Month year, URL
Thomas, Angie. Photo of The Hate U Give cover. Instagram, 4 Dec. 2018, www.instagram.com/p/Bq_PaXKgqPw/.
Name [@name]. "Description of Post." Social Media Platform, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.
Meg [@literaturewithmeg]. "Finish a book with me." TikTok, www.tiktok.com/@literaturewithmeg/video/. Accessed 22 April 2020.
@name. "Description of Post." Social Media Platform, Day Month Year of Post, URL.
@roopikarisam (Roopika Risam). "Thank you, @annetiquate & @caitduffy49 for the opportunity to speak today and to all of you who are participating. . . . "Twitter, 18 July 2019, twitter.com/roopikarisam/status/1151919685149036545.
Author Last Name, First Name, or Account Name. "Description of Post." Title of Blog, Day Month Year of Post, URL.
Liddon, Angela. "Perfect Little Pumpkin Cookies with Spiced Buttercream." Oh She Glows, An Elite Cafemedia a Food Publisher, 23 Feb. 2021, ohsheglows.com/2020/09/20/perfect-little-pumpkin-cookies-with-spiced-buttercream/.
Sender Last Name, Sender First Name. Email to. day month year.
Kane, Doris. Email to Standards Committee. 21 June 2020.
Creator. "Title." Name of Series, hosted by First name Last name. episode #, day Month Year, URL.
Turow, Scott. "How Scott Turow Writes." How Writers Write, hosted by Brian Murphy, episode 90, 23 Sept. 2021, podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/how-writers-write-by-happywriter/id1484859401.
Creator. "Title (Video)." YouTube, uploaded by First name Last name, day Month Year of upload, URL.
Frost, Robert. "The Road not Taken (Video)." YouTube, uploaded by QuestioVerum2010, 8 Nov. 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUaQgRiJukA.
Generating citations is a quick and easy way to begin the citation process. Be careful, though, as the generators are not 100% accurate. They will get you part of the way there, and then you will need to tailor each citation.
From the video home screen (the page after selecting a video before playing the video):
- Click the more tab
- Click the citation tool
- Choose between: MLA, APA & Chicago citation styles
TV Series Watched on an App
"Title of Episode." Directed by First Name Last Name. Name of Series, season #, episode #, Film Studio, Date. Name of app app.
"A Seat at the Table." Directed by Mimi Leder. The Morning Show, season 1, episode 2, Amazon Prime, 1 Nov. 2019. Amazon Prime Video app.
Film Watched on an App
Title. Film Studio, Date. Name of app app.
Freedom Writers. Paramount Pictures, 2007. Netflix app.
TV Series Watched on a Website
"Title of Episode." Name of Series, season #, episode #, Film Studio, Date. Name of Website, URL.
"The One Where the Monkey Gets Away." Friends, season 1, episode 20, Warner Bros., 9 Mar. 1995. Netflix, www.netflix.com.
Film watched on TV or in a Theater
Title. Directed by First Name Last Name, Film Studio, Date.
The Godfather. Directed by Francis Ford Coppola, Paramount Pictures, 1972.
Images Viewed Online
Artist Last Name, First Name. Title of Piece. Date. Name of Institute, URL.
Kandinsky, Wassily. Composition VII. 1913. The State Tretyakov Gallery, artsandculture.google.com/exhibit/vasily-kandinsky-counterpointcomposition-vi-composition-vii/UgKCjKX9MXThIw.
Images Viewed in Person
Artist Last Name, First Name. Title of Piece. Date, Name of Institute, Place.
Matisse, Henri. Dance. 1910, Museum of Modern Art, New York City.
Image Viewed in a Print Book
Artist Last Name, First Name. Title of Piece. Date of Piece, Name of Institute. Title of Book, by First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date, Page.
Hirkoshige, Andō. Yamabushi Valley in Mimasaka Provinces. Circa 1853-56, Österreichische Museum für Angewandte Kunst. Japonisme: The Japanese Influence on Western Art in the 19th and 20th Centuries, by Siegfried Wichmann, Park Lane, 1980, p. 277.
On a learning management system - Blackboard, Moodle, Canvas...
"Slides Name or Number." Title of Course, taught by First Name Last Lame. Learning Management System, University, Day Month Year, URL.
"Slides on Fitzpatrick." English 102, taught by Sally Smith. Moodle, Iona University, 9 Oct. 2019, URL.
In-Text Citation Example:
(Instructor's last name, Slide #)
If your professor permits the use of AI, you need to create a reference and use in-text citations when quoting or paraphrasing AI-generated information.
"Title of posed request" prompt. Name of AI tool, version of AI tool, Name of company, Date prompt was generated, URL.
"Describe how Animal Farm is an allegory" prompt. ChatGPT, 5 May version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023, chat.openai.com/chat.
MLA Style guidance:
- Cite all quotes and paraphrased information generated by AI that you include in your writing
- Add an acknowledgment if you use AI to edit your writing
- Evaluate all sources suggested by AI
Author: do not use AI as an author
Title of Source: use the prompt you entered in the AI tool
Title of Container: name of AI tool
Version: version of AI
Publisher: company or creator of the AI tool
Date: date the content was generated
Location: If your generated response is retrievable, use that URL; otherwise, use the general URL of the tool
Additional examples are available on the MLA Style - Ask The MLA - How do I cite generative AI in MLA style page found at style.mla.org/citing-generative-ai/?utm_campaign=sourcemar23&utm_medium=email&utm_source=mlaoutreach
- Last Updated: Nov 13, 2023 4:40 PM
- URL: https://guides.iona.edu/citationguide
- Print Page