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Citing Sources Guide

Iona University Libraries Research Guide on Citing Source


A note consists of two parts:

  • superscripted note number (1) in the text, placed at the end of a sentence or clause
  • note (containing the citation)goes at the bottom of the page (footnote) or the end of the paper (endnote)
  • note lists the author, title, and publication facts. Commas separate elements; enclose the publication facts in parentheses
  • footnote appears at the foot of a page
  • The first line is indented; subsequent lines flush left

Microsoft Word, Pages, and Google Docs have formatting tools to add superscripts and footnotes

Example of a superscript

The number given to the note corresponds with the number of the superscript. The superscript goes after the punctuation

Wrigley Field is a baseball park located in Chicago.1

Example of what a note looks like:

           1. Stuart Shea, Wrigley Field: The Long Life and Contentious Times of the Friendly Confines (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014), 51–52.

When the same bibliographic information is repeated, use a shortened note

           2. Shea, Wrigley Field, 138.


Rules for Notes

  • List in order: author, title, and facts of publication
  • Separate each element with commas
  • Authors' names are written First Name Last Name
  • Titles are capitalized
  • Books/Journal Titles are capitalized in italics
  • Article/Chapter Titles are capitalized and placed in quotation marks
  • Publication information is contained in parentheses
  • Use the following abbreviations:
    • editor/edited by (ed.)
    •  translator/translated by (trans.)
    • volume (vol.)
    • edition (ed.)
  • First-line indented; subsequent lines flush left

How to Format In-Text Citations

One Author

(Author Date, page)

(Williams 2020, 111–16)

Two Authors

(Williams and Burning 2012, 93)

Three Authors

(Williams, Taylor, and Burning 2016)

More than four Authors

(Burning et al. 2016)

No Author

Use organizations name

(WHO 2021)


(ChatGPT, March 7, 2023)

Authors with the same last name

(J. Burning 2016)

(P. Burning 2021)