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Citing Sources Guide

Iona University Libraries Research Guide on Citing Source


Single author

Use the author's last name and the year of publication placed in parentheses within the end punctuation

... found an increase (Smith 2019).

If the author is mentioned in the sentence, follow the name with the publication year in parentheses

Smith (2019) writes ...

Use the page number when directly quoting. A colon is inserted after the publication year and then the page number; no spaces are used.

(Smith 2019:127)

Two authors

(Smith and Jones 2015)

Three authors

(Smith, Jones, and Tailor 2002)

Four and more authors

(Smith et al. 2021)

Block Quote

The citation follows the end punctuation of the block quote. Do not use quotation marks.