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Citing Sources Guide

Iona University Libraries Research Guide on Citing Source


Single author

Use the author's last name and the year of publication placed in parentheses within the end punctuation

... found an increase (Smith 2019).

If the author is mentioned in the sentence, follow the name with the publication year in parentheses.

Smith (2019) writes ...

Use the page number when directly quoting. A colon is inserted after the publication year and then the page number; no spaces are used.

(Smith 2019:127)

Two authors

(Smith and Jones 2015)

Three authors

List all three author names for the first in-text citation afterward, follow the example for Four or more authors by using et al.

(Smith, Jones, and Tailor 2002)

Four or more authors

(Smith et al. 2021)

Institutional authors

Use abbreviations to facilitate shorter in-text citations.

(ASA 2024)

The reference would be:

ASA (American Sociological Association). 2024.......

Block Quote

Set in a separate, indented paragraph and used for quotes of 50 or more words.

The citation follows the end punctuation of the block quote with no punctuation following.

 Do not use quotation marks.