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Citing Sources

Iona University Libraries Research Guide on Citing Source

Notes-Bibliography: Superscript Notes & Bibliography Page Examples

Rules for Bibliography

  • Format a Bibliography page at the end of your research paper
  • The page is title Bibliography - centered in standard text (not bolded). Skip two lines before the first entry
  • Entries are single spaced
  • Skip a line between entries
  • List works alphabetically
  • Separate elements of citation with periods rather than commas (as was used for the notes)
  • Spell out all words, do not use abbreviations as were used in notes
Tips:

Notes-  use specific page number where information is found

Bibliography - use the page range for the entire article.

Online articles: use a URL, DOI, or name of the database.

 


Notes with a URL/DOI

Long Format:

1. Author First Name Last Name, "Article Title," Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year): Cited Page(s), URL/DOI.

Example:

1. Priyamvada Paudyal et al., “Obtaining Self-Samples to Diagnose Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Systematic Review of Patients’ Experiences,” PLoS ONE 10, no. 4 (2015): 2–3, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124310.

Short Format:

2. Paudyal, “Obtaining Self-Samples to Diagnose Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections," 3.

 

Bibliography with URL/DOI

Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year): Page Range of Article. URL/DOI.

Example:

Paudyal, Priyamvada, Carrie Llewellyn, Jason Lau, Mohammad Mahmud, and Helen Smith. “Obtaining Self-Samples to Diagnose Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Systematic Review of Patients’ Experiences.” PLoS ONE 10, no. 4 (2015): e0124310. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124310.

 

Bibliography with Name of Database when there is no URL or DOI

Long Notes with Name of Database

1. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.

Short Note

 2. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.

 

Bibliography with Name of Database

LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Notes

Format:

1. Author First Name Last Name, "Article Title," Magazine Title, Date, Cited Page(s), URL.

Example:

1. Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times, March 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

Shorten Note:

2. Manjoo, “Snap.”

 

Bibliography

Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Magazine Title, Date. URL.

Example:

Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

Notes

Format:

1. Author First Name Last Name, "Article Title," Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year. URL/DOI.

Example:

1. Associated Press, “Patriots-Steelers to Open N.F.L. Season.”  New York Times, April 22, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/22/sports/football/patriots-steelers-to-open-nfl-season.html.

 

Bibliography

Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year. URL.

Example:

Associated Press. “Patriots-Steelers to Open N.F.L. Season.” New York Times, April 22, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/22/sports/football/patriots-steelers-to-open-nfl-season.html.

E-book

Notes

Format:

1. Author First Name Last Name, Book Title (Place: Publisher, Year), Cited Page(s), format.

Example:

1. Adam Begley, Updike (New York: Harper, 2014), 32-47, iBooks.

 

Bibliography

Formats can be iBooks, Kindle, Nook, and Google Play Books, among others

Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. Book Title. Place: Publisher, Year. Format.

Example:

Begley, Adam. Updike. New York: Harper, 2014. Kindle.


 

Books Consulted Online

Notes

Format:

1. Author First Name Last Name, Book Title (Place: Publisher, Year), Cited Page(s), URL.

Example:

1. Karen Lystra, Dangerous Intimacy: The Untold Story of Mark Twain’s Final Years (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 59, http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt8779q6kr/.

Shorten Note:

2. Lystra, Dangerous Intimacy, 60–61.

 

Bibliography

Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. Book Title. Place: Publisher, Year. URL.

Example:

Lystra, Karen. Dangerous Intimacy: The Untold Story of Mark Twain’s Final Years. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt8779q6kr/.


 

Edited and Translated Print Books

Notes

Format:

1. Editor First Name Last Name, ed., Book Title (Place: Publisher, Year), Cited Page(s).

Example:

1. Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995).

 

Bibliography

Format:

Editor Last Name, First Name, ed. Book Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Edited by John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.


 

Chapter of a Print Book

Notes

Format:

1. Author First Name Last Name, "Chapter/Essay Title," in Book Title, ed. Editor First Name Last Name (Place: Publisher, Year), Cited Page(s).

Example:

1. Kate Andersen Brower, “Backstairs Gossip and Mischief,” in The Residence: Inside the Private World of the White House (New York: Harper, 2015), 211.

 

Bibliography

Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Chapter/Essay Title." In Book Title, Inclusive Pages of Chapter/Essay. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

Brower, Kate Andersen. “Backstairs Gossip and Mischief.” In The Residence: Inside the Private World of the White House, 207-22. New York: Harper, 2015.


 

Print Book

Notes

Format:

1. Author First Name Last Name, Book Title (Place: Publisher, Year), Cited Page(s).

Example:

1. Atul Gawande, Being Mortal: Medicine and What Matters in the End (London: Profile Books, 2014), 79–80.

 

Bibliography

Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. Book Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

Gawande, Atul. Being Mortal: Medicine and What Matters in the End. London: Profile Books, 2014.

Notes

Format:

1. "Page Title," Website Title or Site Sponsor, last modified Date, URL.

Example:

1. “Apps for Office Sample Pack,” Office Dev Center, Microsoft Corporation, updated October 20, 2015, https://code.msdn.microsoft.com/office/Apps-for-Office-code-d04762b7

 

Bibliography

Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Page Title." Website Title or Site Sponsor. Last modified Date. URL.

Example:

Microsoft Corporation. “Apps for Office Sample Pack.” Office Dev Center. Updated October 20, 2015. https://code.msdn.microsoft.com/office/Apps-for-Office-code-d04762b7.

Facebook

Notes

Format:

1. Author's Real Last Name, First Name (Screen name), "up to 160 characters of text of post." Social Media Service Name, Month Day, Year, URL.

Example:

1. Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

 

Bibliography

Format:

Author's Real Last Name, First Name (Screen name). "up to 160 characters of text of post." Social Media Service Name, Month Day, Year. URL.

Example:

Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.


 

Twitter

Notes

Format:

1. Author First Name Last Name, "Post Title," Blog Title (blog), Date, URL.

Example:

1. Conan O’Brien (@ConanOBrien), “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets,” Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m., https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.

 

Bibliography

Format:

Lastname, Firstname (Screen name). “Post text”. Social media service, publication date, time stamp. URL.

Example:

O’Brien, Conan (@ConanOBrien). “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets,” Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m., https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.


 

Blog

Notes

Format:

1. Author First Name Last Name, "Post Title," Blog Title (blog), Date, URL.

Example:

1. William Germano, “Futurist Shock,” Lingua Franca (blog), Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017, http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.

 

Bibliography

Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Post Title," Blog Title (blog), Month Day, Year. URL.

Example:

Germano, William. “Futurist Shock.” Lingua Franca (blog). Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.

Notes

Format:

1. First Name Last Name, "Name of Source." (Type of thesis, Academic institution, Date). URL

Example:

1. Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008) ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

 

Bibliography

Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Name of Source." Type of thesis, Academic institution, Date. URL.

Example:

Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

Video From an Online Source

Notes:

Format:

1. First Name Last Name, "Title of Work", directed/performed by Firstname Lastname (Original release year; City: Studio/Distributor, video release year), medium.

Example:

1.  Jamila Lyiscott, “3 Ways to Speak English.” Filmed February 2014 in New York, NY. TED video, 4:29.

Bibliography:

Format:

Last Name, First Name. “Title.” Date in Location. Medium, running time. Information on where the recording can be found

Example:

Lyiscott, Jamila. “3 Ways to Speak English.” Filmed February 2014 in New York, NY. TED video, 4:29. https://www.ted.com/talks/jamila_lyiscott_3_ways_to_speak_english.

 

Episode of a Series

Note:

Format:

1. Title of Work, season number, episode number, “Episode Title,” directed/written/performed by Firstname Lastname, aired Month day, year, on Network Name, URL. 

Example:

1. The Brady Bunch. Season 3, episode 10, “Her Sister’s Shadow.” directed by Russ Mayberry, aired November 19, 1971, https://www.hulu.com/the-brady-bunch.

Bibliography:

Format:

Last Name, First Name, dir. Title of Work. Season number, episode number, “Episode Title.” Directed/written/performed by Firstname Lastname, Aired Month day, year, on Network Name. URL.

Example:

Mayberry, Russ, dir. The Brady Bunch. Season 3, episode 10, “Her Sister’s Shadow.” Aired November 19, 1971, on ABC. https://www.hulu.com/the-brady-bunch.

 

Audio

Notes:

Format:

1. First Name Last Name, “Title,” Date of speech, location of speech, medium, running time, information on where the recording can be found.

Example:

1. Calvin Coolidge, “Equal Rights” (speech), ca. 1920, in “American Leaders Speak: Recordings from World War I and the 1920 Election, 1918–1920,” Library of Congress, copy of an undated 78 rpm disc, RealAudio and WAV formats, 3:45, http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/nfhtml/.

Bibliography:

Format:

Last Name, First Name. “Title.” Date of speech. Location of speech. Medium, running time. Information on where the recording can be found.

Example:

Coolidge, Calvin. “Equal Rights” (speech). ca. 1920. In “American Leaders Speak: Recordings from World War I and the 1920 Election, 1918–1920.” Library of Congress. Copy of an undated 78 rpm disc, RealAudio and WAV formats, 3:45. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/nfhtml/.

 

Film

Notes:

Format:

1. Title of Work, directed/performed by Firstname Lastname (Original release year; City: Studio/Distributor, video release year), medium.

Example:

1.  Joe Versus the Volcano, directed by John Patrick Shanley (1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002), DVD.

Bibliography:

Format:

Last Name, First Name, dir. Title of Work.  Original Release Date; City: Studio/Distributor, video release year. Medium.

Example:

Shanley, John Patrick, dir. Joe Versus the Volcano. 1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002. DVD.