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Levels of Evidence in Nursing Research

Level one: Evidence from a systematic review or meta-analysis of all relevant RCTs (randomized controlled trial) or evidence-based clinical practice guidelines based on systematic reviews of RCTs or three or more RCTs of good quality that have similar results.
Level two: Evidence obtained from at least one well-designed RCT (e.g. large multi-site RCT).
Level three: Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization (i.e. quasi-experimental).
Level four: Evidence from well-designed case-control or cohort studies.
Level five: Evidence from systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies (meta-synthesis).
Level six: Evidence from a single descriptive or qualitative study.
Level seven: Evidence from the opinion of authorities and/or reports of expert committees.

The content above is based on:  Ackley, B. J., Swan, B. A., Ladwig, G., & Tucker, S. (2008). Evidence-based nursing care guidelines: Medical-surgical interventions. (p. 7). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

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Need help navigating library resources and services? Contact information for the Nursing Library Liaison is listed at the bottom of this page.  

Librarian for Nursing

Natalka Sawchuk

Office located:  Ryan Library

Phone: 914-633-2220

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