Biology: Citing Sources & Writing Style
Elements in a Citation
Style by Discipline
Styles vary by discipline. This list on the Purdue Owl site provides a guide for your adaptation.
How to Avoid Plagiarism
First, do your own work - Begin your research project as early as possible. Keep up in class, do your library work and start your drafts in a timely fashion. Writing your paper will be so much easier if not put it off to the last minute. Procrastination is not a credible excuse; it's simply a bad choice. Performing under deadline pressures often pushes a student into cheating.
Second, establish your own voice - Easier said than done, but this is a key ingredient to your success and a primary difficulty all experienced writers have had to face and overcome. Learn as much as you can about your topic: it will help you develop a point-of-view from which to speak. The more you know, the easier it will be to avoid plagiarism.
Third, do your research carefully. Read the material closely. Knowing your topic well includes knowing what others have said. Strive for a mastery of your topic by introducing yourself intellectually to those who have already made a contribution, or are presently adding to the ongoing conversation. Keep an annotated bibliography of the source material you intend to use in your paper.
Fourth, keep copies of all your drafts - In review, you will notice your own point-of-view developing, changing and growing; a voice of authority all your own, emerging. It will stand in contrast to those of your sources. The difference between yours and their voices will go a long way toward helping you avoid plagiarism.
Finally, make sure that your document is properly constructed and your sources correctly cited. Remember, if the general concept, idea, quotation, statistic, fact, illustration, graph or data you intend to include is not common knowledge in the field of your investigation, a source must be cited. Not doing so will damage your credibility.
Share hard copies of "work-in-progress" with your instructor if the opportunity arises. As you move toward completion invite—and be receptive—to constructive suggestions. It can only make your paper better. This is where errors, especially citation errors, get pointed out and corrected. After a paper is handed in, such mistakes can be grounds for plagiarism charges.
Here is a checklist of questions to ask yourself before handing in your work:
- Are all quotations surrounded by quotation marks?
- Are single and double quotation marks properly used in quotations within quotations?
- Are ellipses and brackets included in quotations where words have been deleted or comments added?
- Are any quotations, paraphrases or summaries attributed to the wrong author? Are any missing an attribution completely?
- Are your paraphrases worded significantly different than the original?
- Are your summaries written in your own voice?
- Are all your source citations included in your bibliography or sources cited page?
- Are the titles, page numbers and dates in your documentation correct?
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